(Kinyarwanda) Rwanda: Ni byiza kumenya imvano y’ibibazo dufite mbere yo kubishakira igisubizo

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Nta mpaka zo kujya kuri kamere ya muntu. Iyi yigaragaje kuva isi yaremwa. Niba Adamu na Eva byarabananiye kwirinda kurya imbuto ku giti Imana yababujije, simbona ukuntu umuntu w’ubu yakora ibitanganza. Uburere n’inyigisho duhabwa nibyo bidufasha guhangana na kamere yacu idakunze kutworohera, iyi yo kwikubira, kugira ubucakura, guhisha, kubeshya, kugira umururumba w’ibintu by’isi dukunze gusiga inyuma iyo turangije urugendo ruto rwacu ku isi.

Nibyo nta muntu numwe utifuza kubona ikintu arya, kubaho neza afite inzu, gutembera akabona ibyiza Imana yaremye. Ikibazo nyamukuru duhura nacyo ni umururumba w’ibintu no kugira ubunebwe bwo gukora tukarwanira kugira ibyo tutakoreye cg tukaboha abandi amaboko ngo tutarushwana nabo mukwikwizaho ibintu by’isi. Aha niho hagonganira capitalisme, socialisme na communisme. Byaba byiza habonetse imvange ya bimwe muri ibi aho kugira capitalisme sauvage cg tukorora abanebwe barya ibyo batakoreye.

Mu Rwanda, kuva cyera na kare, hahoze ibibazo hagati y’ababaga batuye iki gihugu. Yewe niyo watangira igihe abanyiginya bageze I Gasabo bagasanga impugu z’abahinza bagomba kuzigarurira kugirango babone inzuri z’inka zabo. Ntabwo aba bigeze bagira ubwumvikane muguhuza izo mpugu batarwanye. Ahubwo habaye ibitero byo kwagura aho bari bashinze ibirindiro maze bagenda bagura, ariko bica abahinza bayoboraga impugu zari zibakikije.

Abahinza bababereye ibamba bishwe hakoreshejwe amayeri, nko kubashyingira abakobwa cg kubinjiramo maze bakabivugana. Ibi ni ya kamere mbi yo kwikwizaho ibintu binyuze mu nzira z’ubugome, nkaho hari uwaremewe kubaho aruta abandi. Sibyo, Iyaduhanze ntiyigeze ivugako hari urusha ubumuntu undi. Ukubaho kwacu kurareshya imbere ye. Ikibigaragaza, Iyaduhanze yatugize twese abagenzi baza bakabaho, nyuma umubiri wabo ugapfa, bigakomeza no ku bandi bazaza mpaka. Izi ntambara zo kwagura u Rwanda zazanye umwiryane mubarutuye. Ntihazagire uzigira ubutwari. Uwari kuba intwari yari gusaba ko impugu zose zari kwishyira hamwe zikaba igihugu kimwe nta maraso amenetse.

Ni umuco mubi wo kubeshya, uyu wemezagako uzategeka abandi avukana imbuto mu ntoki, kugirango habe umushumi w’abantu bamwe bica bagakiza ngo nibo Imana yatoranyije mu kuyobora abandi. Ibi ni kamere yo kwikubira yateraga aba kugira ubwiru mu kwimika abami, rubanda giseseka igahora mu mujishi w’abantu bashobaraga kwigenza, no guhingira umutware ataguhemba. Uku gucabiranya mu mikorere niko kwavuyemo intambara ya Rucunshu, ikurikirwa n’imyivumbagatanyo ya rubanda muri 1959, impunzi z’abanyarwanda zikwira ibihugu bikikije u Rwanda.

Burya ibidashingiye ku kuri ntibimara kabiri, ntuzakangwe n’abanyabinyoma, amaherezo yo gucabiranya ni ukugirira abandi nabi utiretse. Ni bande bungukiye mu ntambara yo ku rucunshu? Mu myivumbagatanyo ya 1959? Ufashe umwanya ukabicoca, usanga ibikomere byo gusibiranamo kw’abanyarwanda byarangije benshi. Mu yandi magambo, nta nyungu igaragara yo guhaka undi muntu cg kumuriganya. Iyo bitakugarutse, bigaruka abagukomokaho. Kandi burya ubaye intwari wakorera heza hazaza h’abantu bagukomokaho. Kuba intwari nyayo ni ugukunda abagukomokaho. Iyo ubakunze utabaryarya, ntuhemukira abo bazabana nabo utakiriho. Tujye dutekereza iyo umuturanyi avuga ati uyu ni umwana wa kananaka watabarutse ari inyangamugayo (uharanira ukuri n’ubutabera kandi umutima we wuzuye urukundo rw’abanyarwanda).

Repubulika ya mbere yaraje, intwari nyakwigendera perezida Dominique Mbonyumutwa ayobora u Rwanda bwa mbere muri repubulika. Mu gihe gito, yaje gusimburwa n’intwari ya rubanda nyakwigendera perezida Grégoire Kayibanda utarashoboye kurangiza manda ebyiri kubera ibabazo bya politiki byatumye habaho coup d’état muri 1973. Mu by’ukuri, uko byagenze kose ubutegetsi bugiyeho hatabaye amatora bugira ingaruka mbi ku baturage. Simbona impamvu bamwe batategereje amatora ngo akoreshwe, maze niba koko yarananiwe asimburwe. Bivugwa ko amashyaka yarimo kugenda aba mato, ishyaka MDR ryegukana hafi 98%. Ntawashidikanya ko demukarasi yari ikibazo mu Rwanda. Hano ndavuga ukwemera ibitekerezo bitandukanye by’abanyagihugu mukubonera umurongo igihugu kigenderaho. Ibi byazanye ihangana hagati y’abantu bakoranaga na perezida n’aba bakoze impinduka. Simbona inyungu ifatika mugukora coup d’état, kuko ishyamirana ryavuyemo rishobora kuba ryaragize ingaruka mbi nyuma mu miyoborere y’igihugu. Igisubizo cyivuye mu gitugu gikunda gutera ibindi bibazo.

Mu yandi magambo tujye twirinda gushaka igisubizo cy’ibibazo duhuriyeho n’abandi bantu dukoresheje igitugu. Nkunze kubibona mu makuru, aho bamwe begura bakajya mu bihugu barusha imbaraga, bakarasa cyane ariko imyaka igashira ari mirongo nta mahoro barageraho. Umuntu na kamere ye aragoye ntiyoroshye, si ugukanga ngo warangije kumwunvisha ibyo atumva. Amahano yarabaye, perezida Kayibanda atabaruka muri 1974. Hari n’abandi b’ibyegera be bahaburiye ubuzima. Imana ikomeze ibahe iruhuko ridashira, amakimbirane ni ayo guhunga mu bikorwa byacu bya buri munsi, arasenya kandi akadusigira intimba mu mitima. Ariko ibi byabaye, ntibikaduhume amaso ku buryo twarimburwa n’umutego umwana yategura.

Nyakwigendera perezida Habyarimana Juvénal yayoboye igihugu kuva 1973, ashyiraho ishyaka rimwe MRND abanyarwanda bose bagomba kwibumbiramo. Ibi byarabaye, haza amahoro muri rusange mu Rwanda. Ikibazo cy’amoko mu banyarwanda gisa naho gihosha cyane, ndetse ugasanga cyaribagiranye ukurikije uko abanyarwanda basabanaga. Hari abavugako ikibazo cy’amoko cyagaragaye mbere ya 1973 cg muri uyu mwaka gishobora kuba cyaratejwe n’abashakaga guhindura ubutegetsi. Ibi ni ibintu byavugwaho ku buryo butandukanye.

Mu myaka ya 1980, Col Alexis Kanyarengwe wari nimero ya kabili mu butegetsi yaje kutumvikana na perezida Habyarimana azizwa ko yashakaga gukora coup d’état. Iki gihe Col Alexis Kanyarengwe yari minisitiri w’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu. Iri subiranamo ryatumye ahunga ndetse abakekwagaho gukorana na we babashyikiriza ubutabera, bamwe barafungwa. Iyi mikorere yo kunyura ibusamo mugufata ubutegetsi yateje umwiryane mu muryango nyarwanda. Nkomeje kuvugako ibi byose bigerwaho hakoreshejwe igitugu bibyara ibindi bibazo. Ishyaka rya MRND ryegukanaga amajwi arenze ho gato irya MDR, 99%. Muri rusange, abanyarwanda bari babayeho neza, nta muntu uhohotera undi, ariko demukarasi ntiyari ihari ituma ibitekerezo bitandukanye bikoreshwa mu kubaka igihugu.

Muri 1990, Front Patriotic Rwandais (FPR) yateye u Rwanda iturutse muri Uganda. Mu by’ukuri ni Uganda yateye u Rwanda kuko abasirikare bakuru hafi ya bose bakoreraga igisirikare cya Uganda. Uwari uyoboye FPR ku rugamba yari Gen Gisa Rwigema waje kwica mu minsi itatu ya mbere bateye. Gen Paul Kagame, wari mu mahugurwa ya gisirikare muri Amerika yoherejwe na guverinoma ya Uganda, ahita amusimbura mukuyobora FPR. Col Kanyarengwe yari Chairman wa FPR avuga aitangiriye ko aje gukuraho umunyagitugu perezida Habyarimana bari baronse rimwe barwanya ibitero by’INYENZI mu myaka ya 1960.

Ese ubu umuntu yavugako Col Kanyarengwe warwanyaga INYENZI yaje kubonako zarenganaga yiyemeza gukorana na FPR muri 1990 mukuvanaho ubutegetsi bwa repubulika ya kabili? Aha niho mvuga ko kamere yacu itugora, ugasanga twashidutse turimo gukora ibyo tutumva. FPR ifashe igihugu muri 1994, Col Kanyarengwe yashubijwe umwanya wa minisiteri y’ubutegetsi bw’iguhugu, awuvanwaho muri 1997 azize ukwigaragambya ku bwicanyi bwakorerwaga mu Ruhungeri aho yavukaga. FPR yamukoresheje kugirango izamwiture kumaraho abo mu muryango we? Ni kamere muntu ikiri mbi! Muri 1998, Col Kanyarengwe yasimbujwe Gen Paul Kagame ku mwanya wa chairman wa FPR. Ibyakurikiyeho tuzabivugaho ubutaha.

FPR-inkotanyi imaze gufata ubutegetsi, abayibeshyeho baje gusanga mu by’ukuri ari INYENZI zarutashye. Barayagaje ariko biba iby’ubusa bamwe baricwa, barafungwa abandi bafata inzira y’ubuhungiro. Kugeza uyu munsi haracyari abakibaza ngo FPR yaje guhinduka se? ngo siko bayisobanurirwaga na Gen Gisa Rwigema. Naritegereje nsanga ikinyoma n’ubujiji bikandamije abanyarwanda kurusha imbunda. Reba ikinyoma kikorejwe abarwanyaga ubutegetsi bw’imbunda! Aba bakoreraga FPR bakaba bakiri mu nzozi niba koko ariyo FPR bari bazi muri 1990 nabo usanga bakwiza iki kinyoma! Burya rero muri Afurika tuzigenga bigoranye.

Hari amakuru akeneye isuzumwa avugako hari abasabye ba nyakwigendera perezida Grégoire Kayibanda na Juvénal Habyarimana niba bakwemera gutanga ubutaka ibihangange bikoreraho bigenzura akarere, maze amafaranga y’iterambere akisuka, baranga. Ese baba baranabibajije Gen Gisa Rwigema akabyanga? Gusa urupfu rwe ntiruzwi neza nkuko hataramenyekana uwahanuye indege ya perezida Habyarimana. Erega nyuma y’imishyikirano y’amahoro, perezida Habyarimana amaze gushyiraho umukono, abanyarwanda biteguye kubana mu mahoro, missiles zoga ikirere hejuru y’ikibuga cy’indege cya Kanombe indege ivuye Tanzaniya ku italiki ya 6 Mata 1994, ya kamere muntu y’ubucabiranya iba ikoze ishyano!  Hano icyitonderwa nuko intambara tujyamo tuba tutazi aho zateguriwe, ugasanga ibivuyemo biduhitanye cg bitubereye umutwaro tuzasigira abadukomokaho.

Igihe tuzirikanye ko kamere muntu itatworoheye, bidusaba kugira ubwitonzi, ubushishozi, tukamenya neza aho ikibazo cyacu gituruka, bizatugora kukibonera igisubizo cyirambye. Ntacyo bimaze kuba mpemuke ndamuke, utitaye ku muruho wakwishyiramo hamwe n’abagukomokaho umaze guhemuka no kuramuka by’igihe gito. Tugire ubutwari bwo gukunda abacu tutabaryarya, turangwe n’imirimo myiza bazatwibukiraho twaratabarutse.

Duharanire ukuri n’ubutabera bitubere inking y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge, duhuze imbaraga zacu mu iterambere rirambye ry’igihugu cyacu. Ntitukabe intwari zo kwagura u Rwanda twica abo twagombye kubana mu mahoro, dusigira umutwaro w’inzangano z’ubuhemu bwacu abo dusize inyuma. Twemere kuyoborwa muri demukarasi, duce umuco wa coup d’état n’ibi byo gucabiranya indege zigakoroka, abacu bakoga mu muvu w’amaraso. Niba atowe, twemere atuyobore. Niba ananiwe, tumuvaneho mu matora. Niba ubutegetsi bwa gisirikare buturambiye, tubusimbuze demukarasi irangwa no gutora abatuyobora (atari ukubusimbuza ubundi bwa gisirikare).

Umusomyi w’Intabaza

Uwiragiye Justice

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