Tumenye uburyo abakurambere bacu barwanyije ubutiriganya bwa Kalinga

Musinga na nyina Kanjogera ibumoso, ku ifoto y’iburyo, Rudahigwa wasimbuye Musinga kuri Kalinga
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Nk’uko bizwi hose mu Rwanda, ingengabitekerezo ya Kalinga ihora yifashisha uburiganya n’ubwiru kugira ngo ihore ikanga abaturage, bityo bahorane ubwoba bwo kuyigobotora. Kimwe mu binyoma abambari bayo bakunda gukoresha mu guca intege rubanda, ni ukubabeshya ko ngo abakurambere babo b’abahutu n’abatwa baneshejwe ruhenu batirwanyeho kubera kuba ibigwari. Igihe bene Kalinga kandi bahoza mu kanwa ko abahutu n’abatwa bubitse imitwe igihe cyose, abami b’abatutsi bigabizaga igihugu cyabo mu mugambi wo kubahaka, maze n’ababakomokaho ntibigere na rimwe bagira ubutwari bwo kwibohoza ubwo buhake. Ibyo biba bigamije gutera abahutu n’abatwa ipfunwe n’ikimwaro, babumvisha ko nta butwari bagira muri kamere yabo, ko badashobora kubona ingufu zo kwigobotora Kalinga nshya.

Ubwo buriganya bwakomejwe n’Inkotanyi z’ubu, zaba iziri ku butegetsi mu Rwanda ndetse n’izabutorotse zikajya hanze. Ziyibagiza vuba ko zateretswe ku butegetsi na mpatsibihugu, maze na zo zigashaka gutera icyokere hose ko zatsinze intambara yo kugarura Kalinga kubera ubutwari bw’akataraboneka zari zifite. Bamwe mu bumva ibi badasobanukiwe n’amateka bashobora gucika intege, maze ntibagire akanyabugabo ko kwishyira hamwe mu mugambi wo kwigobotora ingoyi y’iyi Kalinga nshya. Hari benshi mu banyarwanda baguye muri uwo mutego wo kubyemera batyo, kubera kudasobanukirwa n’intego y’ubwo buriganya. Ndetse bamwe muri abo bakimeze nk’abana bakwa inkware bagafatishwa ikibiribiri, bageze n’aho bayoboka icyo kinyoma, barihanukira na bo batangira kucyamamaza bavuga ngo Musinga yari intwari.

Ibyo byaba se ari ukubera kutamenya uburyo uyu mwene Kanjogera yari umunyabwoba wahoraga mu matiku y’urudashira? Abavuga ubutwari bwa Musinga, ni abatazi uburyo abatwa bamuhekaga bahoraga bamwita imbwa y’umusega kubera ko yahoranaga umururumba, ntagire ikintu cyiza abakorera kubera gushaka kwikubira byose (Gerard van Overschelde, 1946: Bij de reuzen en dwergen van Ruanda). Ni abatibaza impamvu abadage bamusesenguye agitangira kuyobora nk’umwami bamwise imbwa irusha ubugoryi izindi mbwa zose (“A dog stupider than any other dog”: Des Forges, 2011, p. 93).

Umwami Yuhi V Musinga: Umudage Dr. R. Kandt woherejwe kuyobora u Rwanda yamwise imbwa irusha izindi mbwa zose ubugoryi

Umwami Yuhi V Musinga: Umudage Dr. R. Kandt woherejwe kuyobora u Rwanda yamwise imbwa irusha izindi mbwa zose ubugoryi

Abo bagwa mu mutego wo kwita umwicanyi intwari kubera kutamenya amateka, nk’uko Kagame na we basigaye babimwita, ni bo batumye mfata iyi karamu kugira ngo mfatanye n’abandi kumurikira abataragwa muri uwo mutego, maze bahumuke, birinde gucibwa intege n’ubutiriganya.

Mu by’ukuri rero, iyo umuntu asesenguye amateka y’u Rwanda, cyane cyane ahereye ku byabaye nyuma y’ikongoka rya Kalinga ku Rucunshu, asanga abakurambere bacu batarahwemye guhangana n’abatware ba Kalinga. Ni kenshi bashatse kwigomeka ku ngoma mpotozi bakagerageza kuyigobotora. Ndetse iyo Kanjogera na Kabare bataza kugira umudage Gudovius ngo ari we uhangana n’abigometse ku butegetsi bwabo bwa kirimburambaga, iby’ubutiriganya bwabo biba byararangiranye n’umwaka w’ 1912. Muri iyi nyandiko rero, ndagira ngo twifashishe amateka mu kunyomoza ayo mahamba y’iterabwoba, twiyibutsa ubutwari abanyesave, abakiga, abagoyi, abatwa, abarera, ababeruka n’abandi benshi nk’abashiru n’abakonya bagaragaje mu gukumira akarengane k’ingoma y’abega n’iy’ababanyiginya yayibanjirije.

Muri uku kwitwaza ubumenyi bw’amateka, nubwo hari ibitabo byinshi bivuga ku byabaye mu Rwanda, muri iyi nyandiko ndifashisha cyane cyane igitabo cyanditswe n’umushakashatsi Alison Des Forges (Defeat is the only bad News, 2011), hamwe n’icyanditwe na padiri Pagès (Un royaume hamite au centre de l’Afrique, 1933). Uyu Pagès ni umwe mu ba mbere bashyize mu nyandiko amateka y’u Rwanda bahereye ku bushakashatsi by’ibyo bashoboye kubwirwa n’abanyarwanda basanze mu gihe cy’umwaduko w’abapadiri bera. Mu byo yanditse hari mo n’ibyo yabwiwe n’abacurabwenge b’i bwami bariho icyo gihe. Des Forges we yibanze cyane ku byabaye ku ngoma ya Musinga, kuva yimikwa na Kabare ku Rucunshu mu w’1896 kugeza yirukanwa ku ngoma n’Ababiligi mu mpera z’1931. Impamvu yo guhitamo iyo myaka ni uko ari cyo gihe cyagaragayemo cyane ukwigomeka ku ngoma. Kandi kubera ko abazungu bari baramaze kugera mu Rwanda, ibyinshi mu byabaye muri icyo gihe bifitiwe gihamya, ku buryo ntawe uzashobora kubisisibiranya uko yishakiye kuko byashoboye gushyirwa mu nyandiko. Icyo tugamije rero ni ukwibutsa gihamya y’ibyabaye kugira ngo ababeshwaho no kwimika ikinyoma batazakomeza kwitwaza ko ibyinshi bizwi mu mateka ya kera ngo bitabayeho cyangwa ko ngo nta ruhare babigizemo, kugira ngo bahakane uburiganya babigizemo.

Mu bahanganye na Kalinga bashaka kuyihangamura ariko ntidushyiramo abiyise ibikomangoma (nka ba Muhigirwa, Ndungutse, na nyina wa Biregeya) bagashyamirana n’ingabo za Kabare na Kanjogera bashaka kwambura Musinga ingoma yari yicajweho. Impamvu abo tutabashyiramo ni uko icyo bari bagamije kutari ukurwanya ubutiriganya bwa Kalinga, ahubwo ko kwari ukwima iyo ngoma mpotozi, bagakomeza imihango n’amarorerwa yayo. N’ubungubu hari abigometse kuri Kagame ariko bashaka gukomeza gukeza Kalinga nshya yazanye, bakaba bizeye kuzayima bakayimusimburaho. Abo si bo twategaho kwibohoza rero ari nayo mpamvu tutabatindaho. Mu bagaragaje ubutwari bwo guhangana n’agahato ka Kalinga turavuga Abanyesave, Abagoyi, Abakiga b’i Bugarura no mu Murera ndetse n’Abashiru. Ariko mu by’ukuri si bo bonyine barwanyije igitugu cya Kalinga, kuko hari benshi babigerageje no ku ngoma ya Rwabugiri, nk’ab’i Marangara. Iyi nyandiko rero ni iyo gushishikariza ababishoboye ngo basome ibitabo by’amateka babone n’izindi ngero nyinshi zirangwamo.

Abagoyi

Mu bivumbagatanyije ubwa mbere Kalinga ikimara gushya, bagashaka guhirika ingoma y’abega itari yanashinga imizi, harimo Abateke n’Abagoyi. Abaturage bo mu Bugoyi bakimenya ko Abega n’Abanyiginya batangiye kurimburana, bahise bishyira hamwe birukana ibisonga by’umwami byose byari byaroherejwe na Rwabugiri, dore ko hari hanashize igihe gito gusa abatware boherejwe n’umwami ari bwo batangiye kujya bagera muri ako gace k’amajyaruguru y’uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda. Abagoyi bashoboye gutsinda ingabo zari zoherejwe na Kanjogera na Kabare, bazirukana mu karere kabo kose. Nyuma y’aho ariko, i bwami bohereje indi mitwe myinshi y’ingabo nyinshi, ziza ziyobowe n’Abakemba, zishobora kuyogoza u Bugoyi. N’ubwo zashoboye kurengera Kalinga ntihirime icyo gihe ariko, kuva ubwongubwo i bwami bahoraga bafite ubwoba ko iyo ngoma y’inyibano ishobora kubacika igihe icyo ari cyo cyose. Bahoraga bakora imihango yo gusa n’abitwikira mu nzu kugira ngo imizimu y’abo bari bararimbuye itazabatera ikabahanantura ku butegetsi.

 

Throughout most of Musinga’s reign, he and his mother participated in rituals and sacrifices to appease these spirits [of those they had massacred in the coup and in the aftermath. They sometimes would simulate being killed and buried or being burned alive in hopes of persuading the spirits that those responsible for the killings had died and that those who continued to live were innocent. These ceremonies took place most often in times of crisis, which were thought to have been called down on the Court by the spirits” (Des Forges 2011, p.21)4

Abagoyi bakomeje kwigomeka kuri Kalinga ubudatezuka, ku buryo umudage R. Kandt ajya gutangira kuyobora u Rwanda yasanze mu karere batuyemo abatware b’abatutsi babaga boherejwe n’umwami bamuhungiraho ngo abatabare, kuko batatinyukaga kugera mu baturage.

Richard

In northwestern Rwanda, Kandt found the Hutu still vigorously resisting the extension of rule by the Tutsi, but not at all interested in his assistance. In these outlying regions, the roles were reversed: it was the notables, insecure in their authority and distant from supervision by the Court, who sought his protection.

Abanyesave

Abanyesave bazwiho kuba barigometse cyane kuri Kalinga na mbere y’ingoma ya Musinga, ku buryo ndetse na Rwabugiri ubwe bahoraga bamuhangara, bakanangira kwemera ivuzivuzi rye. Rwabugiri kubera uburakari bamuteye yari yarahagabye ibitero inshuro zigera kuri eshatu agira ngo ayogoze abamwigometseho. Nyamara kuva icyo gihe kugeza ku mwaduko w’abapadiri bera (Rwabugiri yaramaze gupfa), abantu b’i bwami batinyaga abanyasave cyane. Ni na yo mpamvu ari ho Kabare yohereje abapadiri ba mbere bamusabye aho gushinga misiyoni mu Rwanda mu w’1900. Yibwiraga ko abanyesave bazabamerera nabi cyane bakabaca intege, bityo ntibashobore kuhamara igihe ngo bahashinge inturo.

Icyo gihe Mpamarugamba, wari wambitswe imyambaro ya cyami kugira ngo abazungu bibwire ko ari we mwami ntibabone Musinga wari ukiri umwana, yabwiye abapadiri (mu izina rya Kanjogera, Kabare na Ruhinankiko) ko izo nyigisho zabo bazigisha abahutu n’abatwa, ko nta mututsi bagomba kwegera kuko abatutsi ari ub’umwami wenyine. Ubwo abahutu b’i Save bishyize hamwe bajya inama yo gukomatanyiriza abo banyamahanga, bemeranya ko nta muntu n’umwe uzabaha amazi cyangwa inkwi. Iyo abo bapadiri bataza kumenya amayeri ngo bashukishe abana utuntu twa kizungu, ntibari kuzapfa bahabonye icyo kurya. Abapadiri bera ariko bamaze kuhashinga misiyoni, abahutu barayiyobotse ari benshi ngo bigishwe. Bahereye aho na none banga kongera kuyoboka umwami ahubwo bayoboka abapadiri kuko abayobokaga Kiliziya icyo gihe i bwami batapfaga kubatinyuka.

Abarera n’Abagarura

Mu turere twa Murera na Bugarura, imiryango yari ihatuye yari yarigometse ku ngoma kuva kera, ku buryo abo umwami yoherezaga kuza kuhasaba ikoro bamushushubikanaga akagenda kibuno mpa amaguru atareba inyuma. Uko Des Forges yabyanditse yagize ati “n’ubwo Rwabugiri yari yaragabyeyo ibitero inshuro nyinshi, imiryango imwe ikamuyoboka ikemera kuzajya itanga amakoro, hari indi miryango myinshi yari yaragumanye ubwigenge bwayo. Abatware b’i bwami bishoraga muri iyo misozi iyo bahivanaga batahasize ubuzima babaga bagize amahirwe. Ibyo kuhakura amakoro byo nta n’uwakwirirwa abivuga (p 49)”.

Musinga we ntibigeze bamucira akari urutega, yarinze avanwa ku ngoma bakimwita “Gasinga” kubera gusuzugura ingoma ye. Umutware wese woherezwagayo n’ingoma ya Kanjogera na Kabare ku gihe cya mbere y’umwaduko w’ababiligi, bamwakizaga amarumbu y’ibinonko n’amabuye.

“In 1904, the Hutu were still speaking mockingly of “Kasinga,” or “Little Musinga,” a diminutive that referred to his authority, not to his size or age. When the representative of the Court arrived to take command of his region for the first time, they greeted him with jeers and showered him with stones and clods of dirt”.

Ni yo mpamvu aho abapadiri baje gushinga misiyoni ya Rwaza mu Bugarura batangiriye kuzana ubuhake bwabo no kwitwara nk’abatware b’umwami, na bo abakiga b’aho banze kubumvira. Si ukwanga ubuhake gusa, ahubwo banze no kujya gukora akazi k’abo bapadiri, kabone n’iyo kabaga gatanga imishahara. Ahubwo ntibazuyaje no gutesha umutwe abakozi abo bapadiri babaga bavanye muri za Tanzania kubera kubura abanyarwaza bemera kubakorera. Mu gihe abapadiri bera b’i Rwaza bihaye kujya kuyogoza imyaka n’amatungo y’abo bagarura ngo babahatire kuyoboka akazi, abagarura bishyize hamwe, bagaba igitero kuri misiyoni bagamije guhuburamo abo bapadiri bari bigize nk’ibigirwamana. Umugambi wo kwibohoza ako gahato k’umuzungu bari bagiye kuwugeraho, nuko abapadiri bakizwa n’uko bitabaje ingabo za bene wabo b’ababiligi bavuye muri Congo (kandi icyo gihe u Rwanda rwari rukolonijwe n’abadage) ndetse banifashisha n’ingabo z’abapadiri baturutse ku Nyundo ya Bugoyi.

Abanyarwaza baboneyeho birukana abatware bose ingoma ya Musinga yari itangiye kohereza muri ako karere kabo ngo bahazane ubuhake, ku buryo utarakijijwe n’amaguru yahasize agatwe. Umudage Lt Von Grawert ni we wazanye ingabo zo kubacogoza, abakangisha ko ngo nibongera guhohotera misiyoni, azaza kuyogoza ibihingwa byabo byose, ndetse n’amatungo yabo akayabanyaga.

In the outlying regions even the formidable Rwabugiri had sometimes been able to rule only those hills immediately adjacent to his residences; the notables who governed under Musinga, being less powerful and often less courageous, controlled proportionately smaller areas around their headquarters in the hostile regions. In parts of Bugoyi notables dreaded traveling between the small islands of central control; they chose their routes carefully and armed themselves well before setting out. 

Na nyuma y’aho ababiligi basimburiye abadage bagashaka gufasha abatware b’abatutsi kwigarurira akarere k’abarera, abakiga bakoresheje ubuhanga bwinshi bwa gakondo kugira ngo baburizemo uwo mugambi. Bigometse ku bazungu n’abatware b’umwami, maze bababuza uburyo. Hari igihe babubikiraga bakabagusha mu mitego, ubundi bagahangana na bo ku mugaragaro. Hari n’ubwo bimukaga bakava mu karere abantu babaga boherejwe n’i bwami babaga baje guturamo, kagasigarira aho nta muturage n’umwe. Ubundi bakabakumira ku ngufu ngo batabinjirira mu karere, ntihagire n’ushobora kuhatambuka. Cyangwa se bakabihorera bagatura, ariko amategeko bazanye ntihagire n’umwe uyakurikiza.

Mu kwezi kw’Ugushyingo 1917 mu gihe inzara yayogozaga ibintu, akarere kose k’u Murera abo bakiga ni bo bakagenzuraga bonyine, ku buryo nta n’umwe mu bahagarariye umwami washoboraga kongera gutinyuka kuba yahaba. Abatware bahise bagaruka i bwami, naho ibyegera byabo bahasize bihita bihungira ahari amacumbi y’abazungu cyangwa ku bantu bake bari barabaye abagaragu b’ibwami bari bahaturiye, aba baba ari bo babicumbikira. N’umutegetsi w’umukoloni (administrateur) ntiyarengaga ahari icyicaro cye kubera ubwoba, kabone n’ubwo yabaga afite abasirikari amagana yo kumurinda. Umutegetsi w’umukoloni icyo gihe yandikiye abari abayobozi be bo hejuru ko icyubahiro cyahabwaga umuzungu cyari gisigaye kireshya nk’amahembe y’imbwa, kuko yari asigaye agomba kwinginga abaturage kugira ngo bashobore kumuzanira ibyo kurya (kuko we atashoboraga gusohoka ngo ave ahari icyicaro cye ajye kubyishakira).

Abashiru

Kuva mu bihe bya kera kugeza aho ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni bw’ababiligi bwahazaniye abatware boherejwe na Musinga mu w’ 1925, Abashiru bari barakumiriye ibitero by’ingabo z’abami bi Rwanda, maze baba mu gihugu bigengaho. Nk’uko Pagès (1933) na Des Forges (2011) babyanditse, na Rwabugiri ubwe yari yaragerageje inshuro nyinshi ariko ntiyashobora kuhigarurira. Ndetse n’abatware b’abatutsi umwami w’u Rwanda yoherezaga mu tundi turere tuhegereye, birindaga gucumbika muri icyo gihugu, no kukinyuramo gusa bitambukira ntibyaboroheraga, ahubwo bageragezaga kugikikira.

Le Nord-Ouest se defendit à outrance au début de l’invasion hamite. Les Batutsi y eurent affaire à des tribus belliqueuses dont quelques-unes combattirent courageusement pour conserver leur autonomie. Les Bashiru et les Bahoma se laisserent entamer difficilement. Leurs chefs bahinza Nvamakwa et Nyakazana n’ont éte evincés que récemment. Ils se bornaient ‘` payer un tribut annuel à la capitale. Les Batutsi n’osaient pas séjourner chez eux et craignaient meme de traverser leur territoire (Pages, 1933, p.331).

N’aho musinga agiriye ku ngoma rero, Abashiru bakomeje kwihagararaho bakumira ingoma Kalinga ntiyagera mu bwami bwabo. Musinga yasabye ko Abadage bamufasha kuhagarura, maze boherezayo ibitero inshuro enye zose hagati ya 1909 n’1914, ariko byose biba iby’ubusa. Na nyuma y’aho Ababiligi basimburiye Abadage ku butegetsi bwa gikolonize bagashaka gufasha abatware b’abatutsi kwigarurira u Bushiru, abaturage b’aho bakomeje kubabera ibamba. Byageze n’aho bafatanya n’umupadiri wabo w’umuzungu kwirukana abatware babaga boherejwe na Musinga ngo bahazane uburetwa bwa Kalinga. Padiri Prior  wabaga i Rambura abonye Ababiligi banze kumva ibyifizo bya rubanda, bagashaka gushyigikira ingoma ya Musinga ngo yaguke itegeke n’u Bushiru, yafashe imbunda ye maze asaba Abashiru kuvuza ingoma yo gutera akamo, abajya imbere ati «Muze mumfashe, bantu b’i Bushiru, kuko abatutsi bagiye kurimbura abanyarwanda». Abashiru barahagurutse baramutabara, uwo munsi abatutsi bahambira utwabo basubira iwabo, maze amahoro aragaruka.

Father Prior took his gun and his clients; he ordered the drum of alarm beaten, saying: ‘Come to help me, oh men of Bushiru, because the Tutsi are going to exterminate Rwanda.’ That same day, the Tutsi left to go home and so peace was reestablished.” (Des Forges, op cit., p. 154).

Nyuma y’uko abatware b’abatutsi birukanwe mu Bushiru, Ababiligi bashatse kwifashisha umwami Nyamakwa ngo bahategeke gikolonize. Abashiru bakomeje kunangira gutegekwa n’abazungu, bageza n’aho banze kujya bumvira na Nyamakwa ubwe igihe yabaga abazanyeho amategeko yahawe n’ababiligi. Abakoloni babonye batazashobora gutegeka ubushiru gutyo, ni bwo bifatanyije na Musinga, igihugu cya Nyamakwa baracyigabiza kuko yari amaze gusaza atanakibona, ahagana muri 1925. N’ubwo ingoma yabo rero yaje gukurwaho ariko, abashiru ntibigeze batsimburwa burundu, kugeza igihe Kagame yaje kubashinyagurira ngo azajya abarasa ku manywa y’ihangu.

 

Abarashi

Mu bantu ba mbere bibukwa mu gutegura imigambi yo kwanga agasuzuguro n’akarengane k’ingoma Kalinga harimo sekuru wa Rukara Segitande wari umukuru w’Abarashi, wigometse kuri Rwabugiri. N’ubwo uko kwigomeka kwe kutamuviriyemo gutsinsura Rwabugiri nk’uko yabyifuzaga, kwabereye abandi icyitegererezo, ibyo biza no guha umwuzukuru we ubutwari bwo guhangana na Musinga. Abarashi bari umuryango w’Abakiga bari batuye mu mirambirizo y’ikirunga cya Muhabura ahagana ku kiyaga cya Burera, hariya na n’ubu hacyitwa mu Gahunga k’Abarashi. Mu kwigomeka ku ngoma ya Kalinga bayoborwaga na Segitande, ari na we se wa Bishingwe akaba sekuru wa Rukara. Yari umugabo w’intarumikwa kandi uzwiho ubutwari, ntavugirwemo, ubwo butwari akaba ari na bwo bwakomeje kugaragara ku mwuzukuru we mu kurwanya agasuzuguro k’abambari ba Kalinga. Mu gihe Rwabugiri yashatse kwigarurira akarere k’abarashi no kubashyira mu buhake Segitande n’Abarashi be bamubereya ibamba, bamukurira inzira ku murima. Ni bwo yaje kugaba igitero kuri uwo sekuru wa Rukara ngo yigometse, ingabo za Rwabugiri zimuca ibirenge, zirangije zimushyira mu kiguri cy’intozi aba ari zo zimurya kugeza ashizemo umwuka. Kubera ko abarashi bari bazwiho ubutwari, Rwabugiri ntacyo yabakozeho amaze kwica umukuru wabo ahubwo yamusimbuje umuhungu we Bishingwe. Ndetse yafashe uwo Bishingwe anamushyingira umukobwa w’umututsikazi, ari na we waje kubyara Rukara.

Ubutwari bw’abarashi bwari bwarasesekaye hose ku buryo mu gihe cyo kugaba igitero muri Ankole, Rwabugiri yaje kubitabaza bajyana n’ingabo ze, kandi bagaragaza ubuhanga ku rugamba. N’ubwo Rwabugiri yabanye neza na Bishingwe ariko, umuhungu we Rukara agomba kuba yarakuze yumva abarashi bavuga ubutwari bwa sekuru Segitande, n’uburyo Shebuja wa Kalinga yamutoteje amuziza ko yanze agahato n’agasuzuguro k’ubuhake. Bishingwe amaze gupfa, na we kandi yishwe n’umuzungu kubera kwanga agasuzuguro kabo, Rukara ni we waje kuba umukuru w’Abarashi akomeza ubutwari bwa sekuru bwo kwanga ubwishongore bwa bene Kalinga n’agasuzuguro kabo. Yahanganye n’ingoma ya Musinga anahangana n’abapadiri b’abazungu bari batangiye kuzana ubuhake bumeze nk’ubwa Kalinga bahereye i Rwaza aho bari bashinze misiyono muri 1903.

Mu makimbirane Rukara yagiranye n’abo bazungu, Musinga yamuciriye urubanza rwa kibera, Rukara yanga kurwemera, agira ati «iyo nshaka urubanza ruciwe n’umugore mba nabwiye mama akaba ari we uruca nta mugore umuruta». Ubwo yashakaga kuvuga ko yarenganyijwe na Kanjogera kuko ari we wivangaga mu manza zose, abantu bakaburana yikinze inyuma y’umuhururu ariko nyuma akaba ari we utegeka Musinga uko aca urubanza. Byatumye Musinga atumiza Rukara i bwami mu mwaka w’1907, Rukara yanga kumwitaba avuga ati “Musinga ni umwami i Nyanza, nanjye hano mu Gahunga ni njye mwami”. Ndetse aho yari atuye na we yahise i Nyanza, n’umwana we amwita Musinga (iri zina ashobora no kuba yararyise imbwa ye!). Nyuma Musinga yashatse kwohereza abasirikari b’abadage ngo ari bo bajya kuzana Rukara i Nyanza, Rukara abyumvise arizana.

 

Musinga na nyina Kanjogera ibumoso, ku ifoto y’iburyo, Rudahigwa wasimbuye Musinga kuri Kalinga

Musinga na nyina Kanjogera ibumoso, ku ifoto y’iburyo, Rudahigwa wasimbuye Musinga kuri Kalinga

Ubwo Musinga yashatse kugambanira Rukara amutinza i Nyanza ashaka kuzahamuhotorera amuziza ko ngo yasuzuguye Kanjogera. Ariko na none Rukara amukira kubera ubwenge n’ubutwari yamurushaga. Yitabaje umupadiri aramuvuganira, maze aza kurengerwa n’umuzungu Czekanowski wari waje aherekeje igikomangoma cy’Ubudage (Herzog zu Mecklenburg). Uwo Czekanowsky washakaga ko Rukara azamuherekeza mu karere k’i Murera, yarahagurutse maze atunga Musinga imbunda amubwira ko agiye kumurasa natarekura Rukara. Musinga yagize icyoba cyinshi arakangarana, mwene Bishingwe arekurwa atyo, ava i Nyanza kigabo, asiga Musinga yimyiza imoso.

Rukara n’abarashi be bakumiye akarengane k’ubuhake, kaba ak’abazungu b’abamisiyoneri cyangwa ak’abatware babaga boherejwe n’umwami. Bose mwene Bishingwe yabarwanyirizaga hamwe, kuko abazungu na bo agasuzuguro n’ubuhake bari bazanye ntaho byari bitaniyen’iby’ingoma ya Kalinga. Rimwe abamisiyoneri b’i Rwaza bashatse gutumiza abarashi ngo babagemurire ibiribwa ku gahato nta nyishyu, maze Rukara abwira abarashi ko bajyanira abo bazungu amagi yaboze. Ntibazuyaje babigenje uko Rukara yavuze, abazungu barebye amagi bagemuriwe basanga yose ari amahuri.  Ni yo mpamvu umwe mu bapadiri b’i Rwaza yageze aho yandika mu w’1910 ati “kuri Rukara, haba abatutsi cyangwa abazungu, twese adushyira mu gatebo kamwe”.

Mu gihe Padiri Loupias, wari umukuru w’abo bamisiyoneri yari yaje mu karere k’Abarashi azanye n’intumwa ya Musinga, umwe mu batware b’abatutsi yaje kumuregera abarashi avuga ko ngo bamwibiye inka. Ni uko Loupias atangiye guca urubanza abwira Rukara ko abo barashi bagomba gusubiza uwo mutware w’umututsi inka ze. Rukara yarabyanze, abwira Loupias ati “ko wazanywe n’ibyo kwigisha ivanjili, ibyo guca imanza z’inka wabijemo ute”? Lupias yararakaye, asingira Rukara amukangisha imbunda. Umwe mu barashi yahise yiyamirira ati: “mwa barashi mwe mugiye kwemera ko kiriya gisimba kitwicira umukuru wacu? “. Nta kindi basubije bahise baterera amacumu icyarimwe, bahuranya Loupias icumu mu mutwe apfa atyo.

Igitangaje ni uko ibi byose Abarashi babishoboye kandi bari basa n’aho bagiye gucikamo ibice bibiri kubera umwaduko w’abatutsi n’abazungu bagereye icyarimwe mu karere kabo babazanamo amacakubiri. Ariko bamaze kumva ko ari umukoloni w’umuzungu cyangwa se umutware w’abatutsi bombi nta cyiza bazabavanaho kitari agahato k’uburetwa, Abarashi bahise bongera kwishyira hamwe, bose barengera Rukara, n’ibihembo byinshi Musinga yatanze ku muntu uzashobora kugambanira Rukara akaranga aho aherereye nta muntu n’umwe byigeze bishuka ngo amutange. Ubutwari bwa Rukara bwarakomeje, kugeza na nyuma y’aho agambaniwe na Ndungutse (6 mata 1912), agacirwa urwo gupfa n’umudage Gudovius: yapfuye yisasiye, ku buryo n’abataramwemeraga bagize bati umuntu ushobora kwihorera mbere yo gupfa aba ari igihangange.

Ni yo mpamvu “Intahanabatatu” ya Bishingwe bya Segitande n’abarashi bo mu Gahunga rero ntibazibagirana mu mateka yo kwigomeka ku ngoma ya gihake na gikolonize.

Umwanzuro

Imvugo y’ubwishongore inkotanyi zikomeje gutsindagira mu baturage, ihora ishaka kumvikaninsha ko ngo abanyiginya batsinze abakurambere bacu bakabategeka imyaka magana ane batirwanyeho, nta yindi ntego ifite itari iyo kuyobya rubanda ngo rutabona akanya ko gutekereza uburyo bwo kwibohora iyi ngoyi twashyizwemo na Kalinga nshya. Intore za FPR na shebuja wazo basigaye barongeyeho noneho ngo bararibwaribwa, ngo uzagerageza kwibohoza ntazamenya ikimukubise. Bavandimwe rero, nk’uko amateka abitugaragariza, abakurambere bacu, cyane cyane abari batuye mu duce twa kure y’i Nyanza, aho ubutegetsi bwa Kalinga bwari butarashinga imizi ku gihe cy’umwaduko w’abazungu, ntibahwemye guhangana na bwo. Kalinga barayirwanyije ndetse barwanya n’Ababiligi baje bayigarurira ingufu yari imaze gutakaza ubwo Abadage batsindwaga bakirukanwa mu Rwanda. Uretse kandi no muri utwo turere twa kure, n’abahutu b’i Save bari babereye ibamba ingoma ya cyami, ku buryo abapadiri bera bakigera mu Rwanda mu w’i1900 ari ho Kabare yabohereje gufata ikibanza, yizeye ko abo bahutu b’aho bari barigometse ku ngoma ya Rwabugiri bazabuza ihwemo n’abo bapadiri, byarimba bakanabica.

Nk’uko ibitabo by’amateka bitwibutsa kandi, ingoma y’iterabwoba ya Kabare, Kanjogera na Musinga wabakurikiye, yaranzwe cyane n’ubwicanyi bukabije bwaterwaga cyane cyane n’ubwoba abo bayiyicajeho bahoranaga ko bayihirikwaho. Ibyo byatumye abakurambere bacu bahaguruka, bishyira hamwe, bayirwanya batizigamye. No mu gihe cyo kwipakurura Kalinga burundu, ababyeyi bacu, barimo ba Kayibanda, Gitera, Mbonyumutwa, Bicamumpaka, Makuza n’abandi, bahereye ku ngero z’abakurambere batahwemye kuyirwanya, maze bishyira hamwe bayirandurana n’imizi, bayisimbuza repubulika ya rubanda mu w’1961. Natwe rero niduhaguruke dukurikize urwo rugero rwiza, dushire ubwoba, maze turandure Kalinga nshya n’imizi yayo yose, ntizongere na rimwe guhabwa icyicaro mu gihugu cyacu, haba mu Nduga, i Marangara, mu Murera, i Save, mu Buberuka, mu Kinyaga cyangwa se i Bugoyi.

Eleutheria Mukakayibanda

 

 

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One Response to Tumenye uburyo abakurambere bacu barwanyije ubutiriganya bwa Kalinga

  1. Peter Mutabazi says:

    Ba nyamyinyo, ba biyongoyongo, ba mukara, ibishitani-kalinga. Kubireba bino bifoto bya bene karinga ninko kureba mu musari cg toilette. Ntimuzongere kwerekana bino bitera mwaku hano. Ntakindi karinga yamenya atari ukwica, kuroga, ubugome, bagafuni agatsinda basa nabarozi koko kuva babaho.

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