(Kinyarwanda) Intambara ya 1990-94 mu Rwanda yazaniye amakuba abanyarwanda

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Ku italiki ya 25 Nzeli 1961 habaye Kamarampaka mu Rwanda, aho ubutegetsi bwa cyami bwasezerewe mu matora ya referendum. Rubanda iti dusezereye ubutegetsi bwa cyami, twifuza ubutegetsi bwa repubulika. Abari ku butegetsi bwa cyami bayobowe n’umwami Kigeri V Ndahindurwa banze gutegekwa na bamwe muri rubanda bari baracakajwe batagira ijambo. Aba banzeko umuja yategeka Sebuja. Bimenyekane ko habaye imvururu muri 1959 ziturutse ku ikubitwa ry’umusushefu Mbonyumutwa mu makimibirane yaterwaga no kubona ishyaka rya PAREMEHUTU (Parti du Mouvement de l’Emancipation) ryari rirmo kugira abayoboke benshi baturuka muri rubanda giseseka. U Rwanda rwabonye ubwigenge ku italiki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962, Ibendera ry’u Rwanda rifite amabara atatu, umuhondo, umutuku n’icyatsikibisi n’inyuguti ya “R” hagati rirazamurwa, u Rwanda ruba igihugu kigenga.

Abanyarwanda babanaga gute mbere ya 1959?

Sinkunda kuvuga nkoresha amoko cyane, ariko umunyarwanda ushyira mu gaciro yakwibaza imigani ikurikira impamvu yakoreshwaga hambere aha (cg na nubu).

Umuhutu agira inzara ntagira inzika.

Umuhutu ntashimwa kabili.

Umuhutu urenzwe arenza nyina akaguru.

Umututsi umusembereza mu kirambi akagutera ku buriri.

Umututsi umuvura amaso akayagukanurira.

Umututsi umuvura amenyo ejo akayaguhekenyera.

Umutwa ararengwa agatwika ikigega.

Uyu mugani ngo “umuhutu agira inzara ntagira inzika” werekana uko abahutu babonwaga n’ababahakaga cg abo babanaga. Bivugako byatwaye igihe ngo habe imyivumbagatanyo yavanagaho akarengane kariho mbere ya 1959. Umuhutu agira inzara, bivuzeko iyo ahawe ibyo arya ahita yibagirwa wamuhekuye cg uwamuhigaga akamuhusha. Ikindi, uwazanye uyu mugani yerekana uko umuhutu umugenza ntaguteze ikibazo n’igihe waba waramuhemukiye. Ese umuhutu hano yari nde? Ni uwabaga afite inka nkeya nkuko bamwe bakunze kubivuga cg ni uwo bahaga utu akatwemera adateje amahane. Abanyarwanda ni abantu batuye hamwe begeranye, baraziranye. Bashatse kuvugisha ukuri babikora.

Uwaciye umugani ngo “umututsi umusembereza mu kirambi akagutera ku buriri” we yashakaga kuvuga iki? Hano mbona yarashakaga kuvugako umututsi agirirwa neza ariko akaba intashima ku buryo umugiriye neza ashobora kubizira. Mu yandi magambo, hari ukwerekana ikizere gike kigirirwa umututsi kubera ubucakura bumuranga (kuterekana uko ari, akagira imigambi bwite ahishe abandi).

Iyi migani igaragaza uburyo inyabutatu nyarwanda yabayeho kandi ifite uburyo abayigize baziranye. Ikintu twavana mu mvugo nkizi zabayeho nuko ahari abantu haba urunturuntu. Mu yandi amgamba nta miseke igoroye cg nta mwiza wabuze inenge. Twunvikane hano, iyi migani ijyana n’imisumbanire y’abantu (social classes/classes sociales). Ntabwo mu by’ukuri ibivugwa mu migani bijyana n’imimerere y’ababivugwaho. Nta muhutu uvuka aremye ku buryo yahabwa utu twose tubonetse ngo atwishimire, nkuko nta mututsi uvuka aremye ku buryo yakumva yahaka undi muntu asanze aho. Aho aba bose bakurira nibyo batozwa nibyo bibahindura mu myumvire no mu migirire/mikorere yabo.

Ibitero by’INYENZI (INgangurarugo ziYEmeje kuba ingeNZI) mu myaka ya 1962-67

Abari abategetsi n’abafasha babo bahunze igihugu kubera ugutsindwa muri Kamarampaka ya 1961. Bishyize hamwe bagaruka batera u Rwanda ngo batembagaze ubutegetsi bwa repubulika ya mbere yari iyobowe na perezida Kayibanda Grégoire (watabarutse muri 1974). Ibi bitero bizwi mu turere twa Bweyeye, Nshili, Bugesera  no mu tundi turere two mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda byagejeje muri 1967 ariko bisubizwa inyuma. INYENZI zemeye ko zitsinzwe, ariko ziguma ku izima ko nizibona amaboko zizagaruka zikisubiza ubutegetsi.

Hagati aho habaye gahunda yashyizwe mu nyandiko n’amatangazo byo gushishikariza impunzi gutaha kuri repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri (yayobowe na Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal watabarutse muri 1994). Impunzi zimwe zaratashye zirakirwa, ariko bamwe bashakaga ubutegetsi bagumye hanze bifuza kuza mu Rwanda bategeka aho kuza gutura gusa.  Muri 1982, impunzi z’abanyarwanda zagize ibibazo igihe perezida Obote yafashe ubutegetsi agasimbura Idi Amin wari waratonesheje abanyarwanda barwanyaga Obote atarafata ubutegetsi (https://books.openedition.org/ifra/568?lang=en), Idi Amin perceived the Banyarwanda as natural allies against Obote and his supporters. As a resuit the Banyarwanda were absorbed into various civil service positions and other institutions and gained high positions in the dreaded Security Service.

The high profile of the Banyarwanda in the Amin regime set the stage for the repercussions which followed when Obote returned as president in 1980. The political persécution of the Banyarwanda generated negative socio-political reactions leading to claims and counter-claims regarding ownership of land and property. Obote indulged in anti-Banyarwanda rhetoric; this incited local chiefs, UPC youths and paramilitary forces to attack the Banyarwanda. This impelled many Banyarwanda (in the early 1980s) to join the insurgent National Résistance Army (NRA), led by Yoweri Museveni, which in turn led to more persecution. The situation culminated in the mass expulsion of the Banyarwanda in 1982.

More expulsions were carried out in1983. A reign of terror was also inaugurated in the Luwero Triangle, leading to the death of thousands of Banyarwanda). Abaje mu Rwanda barakiriwe  bahabwa aho batura, ariko bivugwako habaye igenzura kubaje atari abanyarwanda, bivanze mu mpunzi, basubizwa inyuma. Na mbere gato ya 1990 hari amanama yarateganijwe mu guhuza leta y’u Rwanda, HCR n’abahagarariye impunzi babaga mu Bugande ngo umuti w’ikibazo cy’impunzi uboneke (Opinion | Rwanda Invasion Isn’t About Refugees – The New York Times (nytimes.com)). Iyi nama ntiyashoboye kuba ahubwo ku italiki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990, INYENZI zari zahinduye izina ziyita Front Patriotique Rwandais (FPR)/Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) zateye u Rwanda zinyuze Gagitumba-Byumba.

Intambara ya FPR yatangiye ku italiki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990

Iyi ntambara yatangiye bitari ngombwa igihe ikibazo cy’impunzi cyari kigiye kubonerwa umuti. Abitwazaga imvugo z’ibirahure byuzuye amazi zaba zaravuzwe na nyakwigendera perezida Habyarimana bajye basobanurira abanyarwanda ibyavuzwe n’uburyo byavuzwe. Nta hantu perezida Habyrimana yigeze avugako impunzi zidafite uburenganzira bwo gutaha, nkuko ntawatashye ngo asubizwe inyuma cg ngo ahohoterwe. Hari ufite amakuru ntafite yayadusangiza ariko urubyiruko rukamenya ukuri ku mateka y’u Rwanda. FPR yaje yica abaturage aho yanyuraga. Ibi si ukuyiharabika bimaze kuba inkuru yasakaye kandi habuze uyinyomoza. Ibi byatumye abanyarwanda bamwe bahita bibuka INYENZI ibyo zakoraga mu myaka ya 1962-7.

Kubera iyi mpamvu abanyarwanda bamwe bitaga Inktanyi “INYENZI-Inkotanyi”. Aha ntibivuga inyenzi ziba mu nzu z’udusimba. Hakwijwe ikinyoma ku isi ko abatutsi bitwaga udusimba tw’inyenzi kugirango babone uko bicwa, ibi ni ibinyoma byahekuye u Rwanda. Muri 1993, habaye imishyikirano y’amahoro ya Arusha muri Tanzaniya ngo habe ubwumvikane impunzi zitahe. Imynazuro y’iyi mishyikirano yemereraga FPR-Inkotanyi  imyanya mu butegetsi no mu ngabo z’u Rwanda. Ibi kubera igitutu cy’amahanga yarashyigikiye FPR, abanyarwanda barabyemeye FPR ihabwa imyanya irenze uko yanganaga.

Ikibabaje nuko perezida Habyarimana Juvénal wari umaze gusinya aya masezerano yiciwe mu ndege yavaga muri Tanzaniya igeze hejuru y’ikibuga cy’indege cy’i Kanombe-Kigali. Uwarashe iyi ndege ni we wazanye umusaraba abanyarwanda bahetse (02.12.06 – ICTR/MILITARY 1 – COL. LUC MARSHALL CONSIDERS THAT HABYARIMANA WAS KILLED BY THE RPF – JusticeInfo.net). Iyo indege itaraswa, amasezerano y’amahoro akajya mu bikorwa, abanyarwanda baba bafite ubumwe n’amahoro n’iterambere birambye. Ubu ibivugwa ni ibinyoma byo gucakaza rubanda imaze gukeneshwa no kwiheba kuri heza hazaza ejo.

FPR-Inkotanyi itera yitwaje kuzana demukarasi no kurengera inyungu z’abatutsi yavugaga ko bavangurwa mu Rwanda bagahezwa mu bukungu bw’igihugu! Ese yaba koko yarageze kuri uyu mugambi? Guteza ubwicanyi mu gihugu uhanura indege (ubu ngo uwahanuye indege ntaramenyekana, ntawe bishishikaje kumumenya!), kohereza abatekinisiye mu baturage, kwandikira ONU no kohereza intumwa mu kwezi kwa Mata 1994 mu kubuza ingabo z’amahanga zatabara abanyarwanda ni ibikorwa biteye agahinda iyo umuntu arebye imibiri y’abanyarwanda irunze mu nzibutso mu gihugu hose. Bigatere ipfunwe umunyarwanda wese wumva havugwa imirambo y’abanyarwanda yanyuze mu ruzi rw’Akagera ikagera mu kiyaga cya Victoria.

INYENZI-Inkotanyi zafashe u Rwanda, abahutu b’ibikoresho zibigizayo zibagire figureheads

Rethinking the Rwandan Narrative for the 25th Anniversary | Genocide Studies International (utpjournals.press), After the genocide, Kagame made himself the minister of defence and head of the armed forces, with a Hutu president, Pasteur Bizimungu, as mostly a figurehead. There was no subtlety here. When the International Panel asked to meet with the president, to our surprise both he and Kagame attended the meeting with the latter doing almost all the talking and answering all the questions. This arrangement certainly reflected the realities of the situation. When, mysteriously and abruptly, the world learned soon after that Bizimungu had not only been replaced by Kagame but had been imprisoned on some out-of-the-blue charge, most seemed to regard the development as inevitable.”

Bitera agahinda urebye uko impunzi z’abanyarwanda zakwiriye isi yose zigaragaramo amoko yose, yewe harimwo n’abatutsi bacitse ku icumu ndetse n’abatutsi barwaniraga FPR! Bitera agahinda urebye ibyabaye I Kibeho muri 1995, mu makambi ya Kongo muri 1996-97, mubyo bise intambara y’abacengeze nko gutera itabi mu karere k’amajyaruguru, gutwikira abantu mu buvumo n’ibindi bikorwa bigayitse. Ese koko abatutsi nka Rwigara Assinapol, umuryango wa Prof Aimable Karasira, umucuruzi Kajeguhakwa, ababyeyi b’umwana Sheja, ababyeyi ba Idamange n’abandi benshi ntarondora aha bari babayeho nabi cyane? Mpamyako uguhura n’ingorane k’ubanyarwanda kwabaga no ku bahutu n’abatwa.

Ibi ubona abantu babyita amoko cyane ni muri kurura n’ishyira kandi bamaze guca akenge aho babonye ubutegetsi busahuzi butita cyane ku moko uretse kuyakoresha ngo bishoboke kwikwizaho umutungo. Utambeshye, uwazanye izina ry’ubwicanyi mu Rwanda rya “jenoside nyarwanda” ninde? Niba ariwe warihinduyemo irindi yaba hari andi makuru yamenye atari afite mbere cg byaba byaratewe n’imivuno y’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside mugucecekesha rubanda. Simbona uhakana ko amoko yose yatakaje abantu kandi nta rupfu rwiza nzi rubaho, tureke kugira abo dukomeretsa.

Naho ibi by’amazina, uyashaka azabanze abe inzobere muri yo, maze asobanurire n’abanyarwanda izina riboneye. Ariko mbere ya byose abanyarwanda bakeneye kumenya uwahanuye indege amsezerano y’amahoro ntajye mu bikorwa. Ese ubundi amazina y’ubwicanyi nka buriya bwabaye mu Rwanda kuki atabanzirizwa n’ukuri ku mateka yaburanze? Bwatejwe nande? Bwakozwe nande gute, ryari? Ninde wanze ko buhagarikwa? Yaragamije iki? Ninde wishe undi gute?

 Hari abato bashatse kubisobanura neza, abakuze babanigana ijambo: Igisobanuro cy’urupfu, indirimbo ya nya kwigendera Kizito Mihigo, Imana ikomeze kumuha iruhuko ridashira.

Umusomyi w’Intabaza

Uwiragiye Justice

 

 

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